One of the most common issues I run into with Django performance is extraneous database queries. Whether its an n+1 query issue, a misuse of complex Q objects, or just a misunderstanding of queryset best practices, it can be tough to get your head around what the issue is in your case. Django gives tons of functionality as a framework, but for most people just getting started it’s often too much functionality to comprehend. This post will dive into essential queryset best practices and a comparison of the number of queries backing them.
Imagine the following:
1 2 3 4 all_notifications = Notification.objects.all() for notification in all_notifications: if notification.type in ['type1','type2','type3']: notification.update(seen=True)
This code runs a query for each object in the
Conversely, the following code runs a single query for the entire
and accomplishes the same goal in:
- half the lines of code (you can even do it in one line)
- literally one database query
- twice the elegance
1 2 all_notifications = Notification.objects.all() all_notifications.objects.filter(type__in=['type1','type2','type3']).update(seen=True)
What we’re doing here is a something you always want to do when given the opportunity. We’re making the database do most of the work instead of Django. By filtering the queryset’s type to include all 3 types we are looking for, we forego the need to iterate through each object in the query set to then check it’s value. Instead, we tell our database to get the objects we want for us.
See it in action!
this one is actually a function
bulk_create() it something I use all the time for making notifications in metoo on post_save signals for certain models. For example, anytime a Rabble comment is created, I make Notification objects for each user who the comment was replying to in addition to the author of the post.
bulk_create() works much like the query_set.update() in that it drastically reduces the number of queries that Django gives the database in contrast to the per-object amount you would run in the most pragmatic university-educated programmer style.
1 2 for user in replied_to_users: Notification.objects.create(to=user, comment=the_comment, type="RepliedToRabble")
Don’t be fooled by the low line count here! This implementation runs a SQL query for each
replied_to_users. Imagine if the number of Notification objects you were creating here
was 100 or 100000! Considering an average query response from your database to Django takes ~25ms,
you’re looking at some serious lag time. Let’s see a more elegant and efficient implementation.
1 2 3 4 new_notifications =  for user in replied_to_users: new_notifications.append(Notification(to=user, comment=the_comment, type="RepliedToRabble")) Notification.objects.bulk_create(new_notifications)
Taking the time to consider how you may be running unnecessary queries in your projects and reap the rewards of speed!